Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Delete All Meetings

You don't need me to tell you that scheduled meetings are over the top. A friend of mine at a high tech firm here in the Valley noted that this week his entire schedule - all day every day - was nothing but meetings. We're no better here in academia. We run life through committees, which of course meet. We even have a committee called "The Committee on Committees."

Of course we understand the theory. Some say it goes back to Ben Franklin, who famously advocated planning as a way to become more virtuous. You're thinking "I must be a saint." But note, in this sample of Franklin's idea of a well planned day, that there is not a single meeting! Well, perhaps some of his 8 hours of "work" included meetings. But odds are, those meetings would have happened on an as-needed basis. They were not formally locked into his schedule - and certainly not put there by others regardless of the reason (or lack of reason) as is common for us all today.

Meetings are a great example of what sociologist Max Weber called "procedural rationality" - as opposed to substantive rationality. Meetings symbolize that work is being done in a rational way, regardless of whether they actually contribute to getting things done. "I did not see you at the meeting." "Did you know about the meeting?" "We should work on this. Let's schedule a meeting." "I'm heading up a new committee. We'll be meeting." And then there are all the regularly scheduled meetings set on "repeat" within everyone's calendars.

What is missing from formal meetings is the question "why?" Under norms for procedural rationality, we assume that meetings make sense. But think of how often you meet without actually knowing why! We set a meeting, and then we figure out what should be on the agenda. In this way, meetings are a perfect example of a solution looking for a problem.

On the other hand, there is a type of meeting that is really very useful - the informal chat. I remember an eye-opening conversation with the great anthropologist Bill Durham. We talked spontaneously about "co-evolution" and I came up with an idea that would lead to a series of papers and a book. You probably have similar experiences; the informal, possibly random interaction that turned out to be golden.

Informal conversations are useful because unless they have value you don't have them. We cut small talk short precisely because it is not useful. Informal talks continue only when they matter.

Knowing this, Steve Jobs' vision for the new Apple campus is of a great big circle. His idea was to increase the chances of random, informal interactions in the center. No doubt Steve still remembered the informal "random access" period at the Homebrew Computer Club back in the 1970s, where he and Wozniak showed off their first Apple computers.

The lesson? Delete all meetings from your calendar. Schedule time to actually work. And meet with others informally just as long as is useful.

An interesting study of the value of informal connections is by Sharique Hasan.

Sunday, March 15, 2015

The Authenticity Advantage

I recall sitting in the Café Mediterranean in Berkeley, struggling to make sense of Das Kapital. The upstairs seating area was good for such study, and for the occasional erudite discussion. A quirky intellectual commented on my choice of reading, and the conversation was easy. He was interesting – a physician who had majored in philosophy. I did not know that was possible; pre-meds stay focused on grades, and you don’t do that writing essays on epistemology. And then he muffed, mispronouncing Wittgenstein. Why do you major in philosophy, if not to learn how to pronounce Wittgenstein? Clearly he was not a philosophy major. Probably he was not a doctor. Maybe he was not even a guy. The conversation was over; he was a poser.

Posers work hard to conform, because they know that people are well-tuned to detect fakes. Think Frank Abagnale, the notorious serial impostor who successfully carried on in a number of false careers - including as an airline pilot, lawyer, and doctor. Criminal though he was, we are in awe of Abagnale in no small part because most of us suffer from the opposite problem: impostor syndrome. Psychologists note that many people have trouble fully embracing their own accomplishments. So the posers of the world, repulsive though they are, have to be admired for their ability to embrace playing a part in the play of life.

Growing up in San Diego, you knew the tourists because they were too perfect: Heishi beads, surfboard wax, hair just so. We locals spent a lot of time on the beach, but had not thought enough about the outfit. In my case: cutoffs that I actually cut off, no board, bad hair. Idiosyncrasy implies authenticity, since posers pay so much attention to form.

In competition, posing can be effective. We concentrate on how we dress when we apply for a job, because we’re posing and want to be seen as an appropriate choice. Those who compete in mating contests work hard at how they present themselves on Facebook. (Does he really prefer romantic comedies?) Of course companies do this too – and sometimes to great effect. You may remember when you found out that Sam Adams beer was not even brewed by the company that posed as its “brewer,” or when you realized that Häagen-Dazs ice cream was not from Europe. But it must be admitted that these brands, posers though they may be, fool enough people to be strong competitors.

The downside of posing is that most anybody can do it. In 2004 eBay declared it would dominate China, and entered by acquiring the then-leading Chinese firm EachNet. By 2008 they had failed utterly – overtaken by authentic rival TaoBao.  What happened? eBay “became Chinese” overnight through an acquisition, while TaoBao built something idiosyncratic from the ground up. I was developing case studies in China back then, and recall that there was nothing distinctive about eBay’s China operation. In fact, it was run out of Seoul! The problem with posing is that you may end up competing with the real thing.

Those who stick to their authentic identity are difficult to imitate. If you go into any part of NetApp, a leading data storage company with operations worldwide, you will see the same organizational culture in action anywhere on earth: little regard for formal titles, open exchange of information, a shared sense of concern for the customer, and respect for well-intended action. These norms are widespread at NetApp because the company hires and promotes with that culture in mind – a habit formed by its founders in its early days, and reinforced to this day by its leaders. (Check out Tom Mendoza’s talks on this subject.) Of course, that means the company’s growth needed to be mostly organic, rather than by acquisition. Such growth can be painful at times, and certainly slower than the sudden growth that comes with acquisition. But most of us would prefer to grow steadily than to acquire and then fail.

Authentic companies fail too, of course. A firm’s idiosyncratic approach to doing business may be dead wrong, in which case they will fail. But to paraphrase Jeff Miller, they may be wrong, but at least they are not confused. So a difficult choice needs to be made if you are growing a business. Do you conform to the established recipes you see around you, or do you build on what makes your company authentic? Posing is likely to be less risky – at least until you encounter the real thing.

For the research on authenticity and competition is the book by Hannan, Pólos, and Carroll.